Evolution III

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Evolution III

Posted by admin on December 8, 2010

Evolution and DNA
©2008 Jerry Thompson

DNA is Deoxyribonucleic Acid.  It is the genetic code or blue print for every single creature.

DNA is not alive.  It is a string of 4 paired molecules.  It makes a spiral ladder called a double helix.  Adenine is always paired with Thymine.  Guanine is always paired with Cytosine.  The arrangement and length of this chain is what determines what protein is made and when.  It also determines eye color, height and all of your other physical characteristics.

DNA displays no thought or even independent action.  It has the ability to self-replicate or create a template from which all proteins are created.  The rest of the cell makes whatever the template dictates and the resulting molecules makes it possible for the cell to live and reproduce..

If there is a mistake or change in the arrangement of the genetic code, that is known as a mutation.  Most mutations are harmful or neutral to the organism. Only mutations in the reproductive cells can be passed on to the offspring.

It has been proven time and time again that the VAST majority of all genetic mutations are either harmful or neutral.  If cell reproduction was perfect and free of mutations, then humans should never age.  Old age is the accumulation of individual cell mutations over time.  The mutations show up as a loss of muscle, wrinkles and poor memory.

Offspring born with a harmful mutation historically did not survive and therefore never passed on the harmful mutation. Modern medicine has improved the odds of survival for many types of genetic diseases.  That is good for the individual, but necessarily good for the species.

There are hundreds of genetic diseases and each one is a mutation.

For example, seedless oranges or grapes.  Seedless is a mutation.  It is a mutation that man enjoys, but it is a killer to the species.  Left on its own that seedless orange tree would never have reproduced.  It would have died.  There would be no more seedless orange trees.  Man's ability to reproduce the plant without using seeds is the only reason we have thousands of seedless orange trees today.  But if nature had followed it's normal course, the seedless orange tree would have been a one generation oddity.

Down syndrome is an extra chromosome.  In the comics, super powers accompany extra chromosomes, but not in real life.  Things did not divide quite right in the egg or the sperm and Down syndrome is the result.  A Down Syndrome child is usually pleasant and often times a joy to the parents.  But the extra gene does not really help this child.  They are mentally and developmentally challenged.  In the natural world, without “normal” people to help them, they would not likely survive.

For every beneficial mutation, there are ten thousand or more harmful/neutral ones.

Yet evolution depends on time and mutations to work.  For a creature to develop in a healthy, beneficial way, it would need hundreds of thousands or millions of beneficial mutations in the right order in the right amount.  This also means there were millions or even billions of mistakes. And a mistake in one individual at the wrong point could end an entire species.  AND if there were NO mistakes that would imply intelligent interference or direction.

Think about what it would take for a creature to develop a leg or wing.  A specific part of the genetic code of that creature would need hundreds of  thousands of mutations.  They would have to occur in just the right order in just the right amount.  The right bone structure mutations would have to occur.  The right nerve connections, muscle and tendons, blood vessels, and skin mutations just to name a few. 

And because every living system is interconnected, you could not have the mutations occurring independent of each other.  For example, nerves cannot grow into a new area with the support of the circulatory system also growing into that area.  Ditto for bone and muscle development.

For thousands generations the limb would be a useless lump as it developed.  And all that assumes the creature mutations occurs in the reproductive cells and this creature mates with another compatible creature undergoing similar mutations.  It also assumes these characteristics are passed on and that none of the mutations are fatal.

It also implies that the same mutations are happening thousands of times across thousands of individuals because if it were to happen to only one creature, the minute this mutated creature is eaten or dies it can no longer pass its traits on.

In our example, let's say it is a leg that would help this creature run from predators.  How helpless would this creature be for how many generations while this appendage is being developed?  If it normally slithered, then it seems these developing lumps would get in the way of this creatures escape from predators.

In the fossil record and today.  There have been no creatures found without a fully functioning anatomy.  No partial developments.

Evolution by mutations makes no sense.


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